Letters and Journals written by Two women from the C19 Devon Buller family (1) -The ‘Chicks’ the Clergy, the Corn Laws and the correspondence of Charlotte Buller.


By T Bonner - Polwhele's History of Devon, Public Domain, 

      Downes near Crediton in Devon is one of the county's country houses which has threaded in and out of my life from childhood. In the 1950's we drove past Downes on every trip out to Exeter in the 50's and each time I remember asking my parents, ‘Who lives there’? Later, during the years when my parents retired and lived in Crediton they loved visiting the estate for meals or coffee when a café and shop was opened.
     In more recent times when researching other things I’ve occasionally stumbled upon the house and family linked with its once time occupants, in particular in connection with E M Delafield’s The War Workers, in which the heroine is a fictionalised Dame Georgiana Buller of Downes. (See Devon’s Doublescapes). During the last couple of years, when I’ve been looking into the archives in search of forgotten manuscripts by Devon-linked women, I’ve found letters and journals written by two C19 women who married into the Buller family.

        In this day of overwhelming email and various social media communications, when hand-written letters rarely drop through the post-box, handwritten correspondence sent from individuals to member of their family and to friends (which in previous generations would likely have been discarded) will become precious and treasured. And letters or journals penned by side-lined women, whose lives have rarely been considered of sufficient interest, will come into their own as unique sources, which will fill in documented gaps in cultural awareness of what has gone in terms of our communal social and interpersonal history. As one source puts it:

“Filled with abundant diaries on all aspects of women’s lives, women’ writings provide the raw stuff of history” Women’s Words and Where to Find Them

Many such letters, personal expressions written by women linked with Devon in the past still exist; although they may be dotted around in various archives, at least they are there, kept safely until such time as someone goes out to look for them. Ok, for the most part the actual documents I get to read are photocopies or e exchange copies, because it is not often I can actually travel to sources such as The Devon Heritage Centre – which, since it moved from the centre of Exeter to its present site has made it much harder to access  (and through Lockdown it has been more or less impossible),  but even with copies of letters it’s always a strange moment when you begin to read a personal communication written by someone say two centuries ago (which except perhaps for the person filing and documenting at the archive – and if the writing if hard to read, as is the case with one of the women’s letters I’m looking at in this post – possibly has not since the day it was written and received by its recipient, been scrutinized by a single soul).

I’ve already written at least one post which comments on one woman from the extended network of the  Devon Buller family (several of whom left diaries and or correspondence which has found its way to one or another archive). You can read the piece about Rosamund Wallop Christie of Eggesford here. That post also mentions writings of several of Rosamund's female relatives. Rosamund was great niece (through marriage) of Charlotte Juliana Howard Buller, (1809-1855) whose correspondence is the focus of this post; some of Charlotte's letters are held (in the Carnarvon of Highclere Papers)  at Hampshire Record Office amidst an extensive bundle of papers related to the wide network of families linked with the Bullers of Downes, many of whose papers are also kept at The National Archives. Charlotte, 1809-1855, daughter of Henry Thomas Howard Molyneux and Elizabeth Long married JamesWentworth Buller of Downes in 1831. James had inherited the Downes estate in 1827. The couple were grandparents of Dame Georgiana Buller, who EMD fictionalised in The War Workers. One of Charlotte’s sisters, Henrietta Howard, became Countess of Caernarfon after marriage to Henry George Herbert,Lord Porchester and  3rd Earl of Caernarfon. Pixton. One of their daughters, Eveline Alicia Juliana Herbert (1834-1905), who became Lady Portsmouth following her marriage to Isaac Newton Wallop 5th Earl of Portsmouthwas mother of Rosamund Wallop, of Eggesford,  who I mentioned above.

My intetion here is not to trace the complicated familial networks; (anyone interested can follow their complex interweavings through the various online genealogical labyrinths). I am however extremely interested in the women’s  literary-leavings, which deserve some kind of recognition, and considering how they related to the journeys of their lives. Many of these women left some kind of written legacy scattered amongst various archives. Both Eveline and daughter Rosamund left detailed diaries. (See this post).  Eveline was active in the suffrage movement (and signed one of its early petitions, which she accompanied with a letter to Mrs Fawcett in 1892). Henrietta, Charlotte Buller's sister, left letters and possible also diaries.

I’ve only had opportunity to access copies of a tiny fragment from these papers; my focus for this post has been on a batch of letters written by Charlotte Howard Buller of Downes as yet I’ve acquired only a tiny handful of her correspondence. In a companion post to follow this one I am concentrating on pages from a journal kept by Barbara Kirtkpatrick Buller, whose husband was a cousin (probably first removed), of Charlotte's husband).

For this post, Part 1, I deliberately selected a few letters written by Charlotte which (from the archive’s catalogue summary) for the most part were written from, or seemed to relate in some way to Downes. There are many more out there to read and explore, (as noted above), held at Hampshire Record Office. What I have read is fascinating. 

               Image Purchased with the support of the Victoria and Albert Museum Purchase Grant Fund

The samples from Charlotte’s correspondence, addressed to her mother and sister Henrietta, range through an extensive emotional repertoire - from deeply personal reflections about Charlotte and her family’s children – who she calls the 'Chicks'; about her husband, who she often calls ‘my dear Hub’, about her own pregnancy, through to discussions about the political fall-out following the North Devon by-election of 1839, in which Charlotte’s husband had failed to gain a seat, and about which Charlotte demonstrates keen political understanding of the ramifications and repercussions of that time.

In one affectionate letter written to her mother in about 1836/ 7,  (75M91/L2/112/2) when, a young wife and during her early child-bearing years, Charlotte demonstrates a warm maternal instinct:

Tibbie is well again … very much pleased to go out in the carriage to pay visits and buy dolls of which she has quite a family. I took her to a toy shop the day before yesterday and allowed her to have a doll which she found most difficult as there were so many and at last I was obliged to limit her choice to two only and give her one minute for her decision and was quite pleased with her manner of making up her mind for I was half afraid she might cry and think me rather ? in not allowing her to have the longer dolls which I explained to her were very expensive… so when she had decided on her ? doll she said it was very pretty and not at all expensive … she is a dear good little thing…

She’s updating her mother about ‘Tibbie’ (who I'd initially assumed was one of her own daughters, probably Juliawho was born in 1833; but then I realised that the Hampshire Record Office had read 'Tibbie' as being Charlotte's sister Isabella's daughter; (if so according to this genealogy source the girl was presumably Isabella, who was born in 1831).

    In the same letter Charlotte shows amused concern about her nephew, who was also her sister Isabella’s baby: ‘I am sure his dribbling and running at the nose and eyes and his fractiousness may be easily accounted for when we remember that he is 9 months old and has but one tooth’. (This child is probably Henry Charles Howard later 18th Earl of Suffolk who was born in 1833).

Charlotte’s letters - including the one quoted above, which seems to have penned from London, and from where her husband James ‘left last night for Devon … it is very desirable for him to be at Downes just now’ – aren’t all sent from the family home at Downes. But it seems evident that even during the early years of her marriage, Charlotte has become fond of her Devon home; she declares ‘I longed to go with him’.

                                        Image: extract taken from letter when Charlotte says her husband has left for Downes,
                              in Devon. Purchased with the support of the Victoria and Albert Museum Purchase Grant Fund.

Another lengthy letter, which is addressed to Charlotte’s sister Henrietta and  penned in 1839, the year when James WentworthBuller lost the North Devon by-election, gives us, looking back, a fascinating backdrop to the local political climate of that campaign. The History of Parliament website provides an account summarising Buller’s political career; from an already established and prominent parliamentary family, he was a British Whig M.P. for Exeter from 1830-35.

    Image; page from letter mostly focused on the by-election 1839.
Purchased with the support of the Victoria and Albert Museum Purchase Grant Fund

 Charlotte’s letter is marked by the emotional fall-out and impact on her and her husband following his failed attempt to regain his seat. After apologising for a long delay in writing to her sister (who is away, in Athens) she conveys her overwhelming sense of turmoil, a mixture of bitter disappointment and disillusion, tempered by the consolation of realising that the family can enjoy more privacy than would have been the case if her husband had kept his seat. (The impact of the phenomenon of intense public scrutiny for those in public service is not unique to our times):

 … a month ago no one had the slightest anticipation of a contested election in this county, and now within the month a definite battle between has been fought and lost, to us, at least this has been such an overwhelming subject of interest and excitement to me, that as you may imagine I could with difficulty bring my mind to attend to anything else and could not persuade myself to write to you in the middle of the struggle when hope and fear alternatively predominated. Now it is over and 5 days have elapsed since my dear Hub’s defeat and I have had time to check my bitter feelings that will spring up and time also to remember how infinitely more happy is our present life that it would be were we in a more public situation.

In this letter Charlotte comes across not only a woman of great intellect, keenly aware of the repercussions of the political situation, but also as someone with sophisticated understanding of self (we’d call it self-awareness), who's capable of analysing and holding conflicted emotions. She also articulates her deep feeling for and empathy with her husband:

… I first felt this result to be both a trial and a disappointment … there never was so much desperation and every nerve was strained, especially in the Tory side, so that I fear you would have found it difficult to remain neutral. For my part I see good in all ways to us – my dearest Hub’s character certainly never stood higher … and I feel it has drawn out a delightful feeling for him in his own immediate neighbourhood.

Emphasising Charlotte’s ability to dissect the complex politics involved, the letter goes on to analyse the effect of the reverberations of the failed election on the Buller family and its wider impact on the community; her comments implicitly imagine a utopian time beyond the present, when the dual Party system set up with its inevitable power-grabs might be replaced by resolute men of power who have what she calls  ‘uncompromising integrity’, (implying, of course, that James is one such):

… the Clergy were bitter in their hostility …The more I see of both Parties as parties the less I like either and the more clearly am I convinced that men of uncompromising integrity and honourably and conscientiously independent character would not long satisfy either party and having seen (once returned?) it would be infinitely more mortifying to be thrown off by one’s former supporters, than as now, to have fought a good fight honestly with hearty feeling on one side at least.

Charlotte’s bitterness following the political furore occasioned by the election is mostly focused on her anger against Tory supporters – especially as in the passage above, the local clergy. Further on in the letter, she elaborates:

… the Tories poisoned the minds of the Liberal party against Mr Buller on the grounds of his being against the presence of the Corn Laws, which they know to be false, and know also was not the real point of difference between him and their champion, who however spoke about nothing else at the nomination, ditto both his proposer and seconder, but who, now that he has won, turns round and says it has nothing to do with agriculture but is a triumph of conservative principles …

I’m not professing to be knowledgeable about the ins and outs of the political circumstances of the C19 let alone specifically the 1930’s, but have had a quick read around about the background of the North Devon 1839 by-election and the Buller campaign. At least one source suggests that Charlotte’s bitterness against the clergy was justified:

In the North Devon by-election of 1839 it was the Anglican clergy who released voters from their earlier promises to James Buller therefore helping to ensure the totally unexpected triumph of the Conservatives. (Letter from Charles Buller 1839 quoted in  'The Election after 1832: Tradition and Transformation', in Electoral Reform at Work, Philip Salmon (Royal Historical Society, 2002).

There was also political controversy regarding James' attitude and intentions regarding the notorious Corn Laws, but it is beyond the scope of my post to begin to analyse those concerns here. 


For anyone who's interested in following up about this generation of the Buller family from Downes, the book Buller: A Scapegoat?: A Life of General Sir Redvers Buller VC, by Geoffrey Powell, whose subject is Charlotte Buller's famous son Sir Redvers Buller, contains fascinating insights about the family, including a cameo summarising Charlotte as a person: she was a 'mature and motherly woman ... charming and most attractive woman of the world, whose literary and artistic talents matched those of her husband'.

Sadly, Charlotte's death at the age of only 46, was untimely and  traumatic. She travelled to Exeter by train to go Christmas shopping and was taken ill at Central station. The terrible event was witnessed by some of her children, including son Redvers. Powell tells how, too ill to be moved, she lay in the waiting-room for three days on a hastily improvised bed continuously fanned by her son, until she passed away. It is perhaps not much wonder that later in life it was said that Redvers remained devoted to his mother and carried her photo wherever he went. 

As I've noted above Charlotte was not the only woman from the extended Buller family who left some kind of literary legacy. Her sister Henrietta also left correspondence and from one source (I think it's mentioned in Buller: A Scapegoat?: A Life of General Sir Redvers Buller VC), I understand that Charlotte's daughter, another Henrietta kept journals, but I've not managed to locate them, as yet.

It is important to note here that one or two reading this post might well conclude, correctly, that Charlotte Buller’s aristocratic and privileged family background doesn't really qualify her for the label ‘woman on the margins’. But forgotten literary contributions, even from a woman of her background – not only from the upper class, but educated, intelligent, literary and eloquent, can still so easily be side-lined. As far as I’m aware no one has yet sifted through the relevant correspondence to see what fascinating extra material it might provide about the historical context of her time. I hope someone out there finds this piece and decides to delve into Charlotte’s other letters, as well as those of the other women correspondents and diarists in her family. I'd love to have more time and space to acquire and read more of Charlotte Buller’s letters, but given that there are other literary documents to search out from her familial networks, I’m going to forgo that pleasure and move on to take a look at some writings of Barbara Kirkpatrick, another fascinating woman who also married into the Buller 'clan'. My next post on this blog will be about her journals.

Many thanks to Hampshire Record Office for their kind help in providing information and copies of  extracts from Charlotte Buller's correspondence. Appreciation and thanks also to the Downes Estate for permission to publish extracts from the letters.

Ann Mason Freeman Devon Breakaway Bible-Christian, Quaker, Letter-Writer, Memoirist and Passionate Preacher

Map with Northlew showing Horrathorn

           From the first moment I came across references to her the C19 female Devon preacher/memoirist/ letter writer Ann Mason Freeman caught my attention.  You will find various online sources which feature Ann, so she's not entirely extinguished from Devon's history. But she is one of the lucky ones, records about Freeman's life and her memoir only survive because of her links with the Bible Christians, one of the evangelical movements which sprang up in the westcountry during the C19. Initially Ann Freeman intrigued me because her home background, a farming family in west Devon, was similar to that of many of my own ancestors and as well she had lived not far from the parishes with which branches of our family were also rooted for hundreds of years. Broadly speaking, that takes in parishes that lie within a triangle formed by the point of Okehampton, Barnstaple and Bude - Broadwoodkelly; Dowland; Monkokehampton and other neighbouring parishes.

         One of my great great grandmothers was  Mary Parker, who was born at a farm in the parish of Dowland, which is just 20 miles east of Sutcombe, where one of the farms that the Mason family held is situated. Mary Parker was born in 1791 just a few years before Ann Mason Freeman. When you take into account Devon's proliferation of parishes, the distance between these parishes is small enough for the rural families of our farming ancestors to extend out genealogical tendrils and link up one with another in many and various complicated networks. Also, when it comes to the main narrative themes of Ann Mason Freeman's life, that geographical triangle is sufficiently compact to allow a reconstruction of patterns of inter-relationship in past communities in terms of their religious interests and associations. When I read about Ann's life, writings and travels I kept wondering if some of my foremothers or forefathers may have encountered her or others in her social circle; or indeed, if any of my great, or great great grandmothers, - such as Mary Parker - might themselves have become caught up in the world of the once celebrated Bible Christian/Quaker female iterant evangelical preachers, just as did Ann. If so, then sadly their religious fervour, memories and letters have long ago dispersed into dust and earth. In any case, as far as the Westcountry is concerned it is unusual (indeed, as far as I am aware, probably unique) for any texts written by a woman from this period to have survived, which in itself make the Memoir of the Life and Ministry of Ann Freeman written by herself and An Account of her Death by her husband Henry Mason, a special book.

        Yes, fair enough, Ann Freeman's text only exists because of its links with evangelical sects of her time and its remit is a narrowly focused religious rhetoric, but even so the memoir provides a way of allowing us a glimpse into the mind-set of women from rural Devon communities during the early C19, so even though my own foremothers' personal diaries don't survive, texts such as that penned by Ann can fill out a background context for family history social records. 

        I assume that one of the reasons that the text written by Freeman -which includes the narrative of her life-journey - survives, is because it was taken up by her husband after her death, then edited, extensively prefaced and published as her biography, by him. Hers is not the only story of a woman who wrote who would have disappeared into the ether if not for the actions of a male relative following her own demise. In other words, Ann Freeman is fortunate to have such a legacy - and indeed her 'fame' within the restricted circuits of evangelical networks, which means that she has a biography in sources such as Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (which as I write this during lockdown 2020 is allowing free access for a while through some library memberships)  - is probably mostly due to the biography accorded to her by her husband rather than other more peripheral historical sources. Henry Freeman's prefacing commentary about his late wife's Memoir (which was published not long after her death), suggests that he has omitted passages and as well he has edited some of her words.

 'The following memoirs do not contain the whole of what my dear partner wrote as that would have swelled the book … the whole of the memoirs are in her own words except the     alterations of I believe very few expressions that the reader may have a better understanding of the real meaning'. (See Memoir
        It is of course impossible to know how much Henry left out or indeed how much of the text he altered, but I think for a contemporary researcher reading a woman's text like this which has been shaped by a man, it is always important to have at the back of one's mind that the writing includes alterations and therefore may not be presented the way its author intended.

        It's also important to point out that another reason Ann Mason Freeman's memoir has survived is because of its provenance as a text written by one of the women acclaimed inspirational woman preachers from an important sectarian movements of the early C19. Designated as a 'Female Special Agent' Ann was one of a network of women preachers, many from Devon and Cornwall (several of them were her friends) who were encouraged and supported during the early years of the Bible Christian movement. During some of the years in which they were active in the south west some thirty per cent of the preachers taken on by the sect were women. Thus Ann's own memoir is an excellent source book for those who might be researching other women preachers of that time. The Bible Christian website provides the following information on Bible Christian women preachers.

From the very beginning, female preachers played a significant part in the work of the Bible Christians. Mary Thorne, the mother of James Thorne, had preached around Shebbear at the very beginning. Catherine Reed did much work to establish the circuits in Kent and London. The preaching of Mary Thorne, née O'Bryan, was described in The Maiden Preacher by her son, Samuel Ley Thorne, in 1889. Mary's mother, Catherine Bryant, had become a Bible Christian preacher. There are others: Johanna Brooks, Elizabeth Courtice, Elizabeth Dart, Anne Mason, Mary Ann Verry and Mary Toms. (The Bible Christans).

From Ann Mason Freeman's Memoirs

         According to her own memoir, Ann Mason was born 24th June 1797 at Horrathorn, or Horathorne, near Northlew (which you can see on the map which heads this post). Her parents were William and Grace Mason, who as far as I understand were of the established Anglican church (but I'm not quite sure of this fact). The beginning of her memoir (see illustration) relates that Ann was fourth of the Mason's thirteen children.  Compared to that of the life-span expectations of current generations, Ann's life was brief. She died at the age of 26, but albeit in conformity with the religious norms of her time, managed to pack into her short life-span a veritable wide-ranging box of experiences, including several homes, wide-ranging travels, extensive preaching and a number of texts including letters to a variety of relations, friends and acquaintances. When she was fifteen, just as many daughters from farming families, she was apprenticed to a dressmaker and shortly after this her family moved 18  miles north west of Northlew to another farm, Northcott (you can see Northcott on The Ruby Trail Map), which is between the parishes of Sutcombe and Bradworthy.

Map of Bradworthy showing Northcott

       In her book Prophetic Sons and Daughters, Deborah M Valenze remarks that the Masons, 'like the majority of the inhabitants of the area' were 'small farmers', and surrounded by 'moorland terrain', but I'm not quite sure she is correct in that assumption

       I find it rather intriguing that according to Ann Freeman's Memoir all the Mason siblings 'were early instructed to read, to say prayers mornings and evenings and on first-day evenings were catechised'. Ann must also have been a fluent reader and writer. In my own family history research apropos farming ancestors from Broadwoodkelly and neighbouring villages - which are also parishes in the nearby territory of west and north Devon - I've not always found that the women of the same era were able to write, for only a few of our foremothers signed their own marriage record. Of course they may have learnt to read; it's not possible to know, but I'm tempted to suggest that the women of the farming families of the Westcountry of Ann Mason's generation (late C18/earlyC19 were not generally literate. Perhaps she and her siblings were in the minority; or perhaps it was her religious and familial backgrounds which were the determining forces. 

Lane just south of Northcott (credit on image)

          The next fact we find about Ann in her memoir is that in the year before her family's move to Northcott farm, presumably while they still lived at Northlew, she fell under the influence of a Methodist Minister who came to preach in the parish, but during the same period she was bothered by inner spiritual turmoil and began to suffer from the physical ailments that eventually ended her life. She describes a trip to 'Oakhampton' where she was supposed to be confirmed, but because of inner turmoil - the 'dark' and 'death' in her  - confirmation didn't happen, and it was 'ministry' with a 'soldier' that helped her to see 'the beauty in religion' and prompted her to feel the 'power of Grace'. This experience was apparently a reawakening for Ann. It appears from her narrative that there followed many turbulent spiritual times, but this intense encounter started her on a new life-path of dedication to the role of 'pilgrim', a spiritual inner world from where she could minister for her God. Soon after the family's move north to Northcott, during  'midsummer', Ann and her sister Mary became 'spiritual companions' and joined the Northcott Methodist Society. This caused ructions in the family, and their father promptly banished them from the house, but evidently Ann won the battle and all too soon her mother and at least four other siblings were also converted and joined the 'breakaways'.

      During the next few years Ann describes a 'great revival of religion in the neighbourhood' and she began travelling away from home to attend various evangelical meetings. One such meeting was 8th September 1816, when she walked six miles to 'hear a stranger preach' and on another outing the following month she fell under the spell - the 'fame of love' of  the breakaway Bible Christian minister James Thorne. Thorn and another minister William O'Bryan had led the split of the Bible Christians or Bryanites from the Wesleyan Methodists a year before, in 1815. (Their first meeting was held at Lake Farm in Shebbear. It doesn't seem as if Ann was present at that meeting, which is perhaps surprising given that Shebbear is only 8 miles east from Sutcombe and during these years Ann apparently thought nothing of walking long distances).

Another lane south of Northcott (credit see image)

        By the time she was definitely drawn into their orbit the group were becoming highly influential in the westcountry. On 1st January 1817 Ann attended the fifth quarterly Bible Christian meeting at her aunt's barn at Alsworthy (it may be this barn at Alsworthy in Bradworthy but probably is also in the neighbouring parish of Alfrardisworthy), where she says 'The Lord poured out His Spirit'. I'm assuming that Alsworthy is the farm of that name in the parish of Alfardisworthy, which is about five or six miles south-west of the Mason's farm at Northcott.  It was after this meeting that Ann left the Methodists and became a class leader and preacher with the Bible Christians. So, despite increasing respiratory problems, she began many years of travelling, often involving long-distance walks to open air meetings all over the county and down into Cornwall, where as itinerant preacher she spoke to the people who flocked round her. She apparently thought nothing of walking thirty miles in a day to reach a destination. Her appointments included the position of preacher for the Shebbear circuit, and then, for North Cornwall.  

       I'm not going to follow Ann Freeman's spiritual journey, or preaching career to the end of her life, which, following her marriage to |Henry Freeman in London, encompassed years away from her home-patch, in London and Ireland. I prefer instead to focus on her time and life down in Devon, her homelands, to try and unpick a few of the tangled threads of her family and associative network, because I'm sure this unusual farmer's daughter didn't just suddenly transform her persona from rural 'ugly duckling' into passionate, gifted evangelical performer without, either inheriting traits and talents from family members close to her, or/and absorbing skills from other inspirational individuals as they went out and about on the local Bible Christian circuits. My investigation here is only preliminary. I'd love one day to focus on long-term focused research about Ann and other women in her circle who became involved in these west Devon breakaway sects, because there is much yet out there to discover which will be relevant both to those interested in Devon's forgotten literary-linked women and to those who may have family roots in the area.  I am rather ashamed to admit that before I was led along the local archive mazes to Ann Freeman I was one of those, who though passionately interested in both Devon genealogy and Devon's literary women, had not ever really taken much notice of Bible Christians; but now since encountering this Devon memoirist and preacher I am aware that there is much yet out to there to re-discover. However, as far as this blog post is concerned, my intention is to just send out a few feelers to others out there, who might want to pick up my threads and follow the journeys of Ann and others in her network.

       In his unfinished book  A new history of the Bible Christian Church 1815-1907 (Jamaica Press, Hartland, 1997 - the whole text can be found online) Michael Wickes says

 'Bible Christians … should be of interest to most local and church historians, as well as to genealogists trying to trace families of Westcountry descent. The Bible Christians played an important role in the social and political development of the South West during the Victorian era but too many histories of Devon and Cornwall have almost completely ignored their presence. Many contemporary inhabitants of the South West have never heard of the Bible Christians, despite the fact that Bible Christian chapels still form part of the local rural landscape'. New History

        Well, my as yet tentative research to explore gaps in what is known about Ann's immediate (and even extended family) brought up so much material (as is often the way with these kinds of 'Who do you think you are?' kind of searches) that I hardly know where to begin. I suppose I started with the thought that this young farmer's daughter might/must have had a rather different background that the foremothers in my own (also north and west) Devon farming family. As noted above, I've not yet found any three times great grandmother from that north and west Devon branch of our family who was obviously educated to any level other than (sometimes) basic literacy, I also had my doubts about the assumption made about the social standing of Ann's parents. Were they really just  rather poor yeoman farmers with only a small farm holding as Valenze in her book Prophetic Sons and Daughters concludes? I'm not sure.

         When I started to look at the online genealogical sites (especially making use of the Lockdown free access briefly made possible), it was not easy to trace William Mason, Ann Mason's father's family and background; there seemed too many alternatives to make it possible to establish his identity. So instead, I began with Ann's mother's family. With the help of FindMyPast it was easy to find her parents' marriage, at Bradworthy, on  23rd May 1791, and so discover that William was 'husbandman'  and her mother's maiden name was Grace Ashton.

Record of William \Mason and Ashton marriage banns

Both William and Grace were identified as  'from' Bradworthy and both signed their names. Thus opened a flood-gate of  Bradworthy Ashtons, taking in other researchers' family-trees - which inevitably meant some disparity as to identities of Ann's mother Grace's parents (Ann's maternal grandparents). I had to choose between two possibilities, both of which led back to probably one family of Ashtons from the Sutcombe/Bradworthy area, who it seemed to me were likely to have been aspiring freeholder yeomen, possibly a step away from 'gentlemen' status.

       There are quite a few Ashton wills (or lists of) and other documents available via Discovery and/or Devon Record Office, one of which I believe may be that of Ann's maternal grandfather, Samuel Ashton. 'Yeoman of Bradworthy'. A Lawrence Ashton is also listed as Yeoman in several files which relate to land conveyancing sales of parcels of land in the parish. Lawrence may be Samuel's father and thus Ann's great grandfather. (If so, Ann's maternal great grandmother, Samuel's wife, was Margaret Tremeere (another family who seem to have had long-standing roots in Bradworthy).

       The Bradworthy website comments that the Ashton family purchased the Manor of Bradworthy early in the C19. I also read somewhere (but have mislaid the source) that the Ashtons owned Lower Alfardisworthy (farm) for nearly 200 years. (Could this be the same farm as that of the site of the barn where the transformative Bible Christian meeting was held where Ann was 'converted'?|) This suggests to me that when they moved from Northlew to Northcott near Bradworthy, the Masons were possibly returning to Grace's maternal roots. Was it then being farmed by one of her maternal aunts? If so, which one? All this indicates to me that Ann Mason Freeman's maternal inheritance was affluent. I doubt that her mother's parents (or father) were poor tenant farmers. If I am correct then it explains Ann's apparent high level of  literacy, which I have puzzled about ever since I found that she learnt to read early in life. I believe there must be much more to find about the Ashton family and their links with Bradworthy. (However, if the brilliant researchers on Ancestry are correct, then at least one branch of the Ashton ancestors had Cornish links, for Lawrence Ashton's birth is listed as at Morwenstow. Perhaps when Ann travelled to Cornwall to preach she knew that she was returning to a place where some of her forbearers had called home.)

      Well, as noted above, Ann's father's parentage and birth place is not so certain than that of her mother's Ashton family. But yet again, eventually Ancestry came up trumps and provided some clues, which led me to a William Mason who I think may be Ann's father. That William Mason was baptised in Hatherleigh, a parish less than five miles from where the Mason family farmed at Northlew. He was a son of another William Mason, his mother born Mary Hole. That couple had been married in North Tawton, another nearby parish. I have not been able to find anything more about the Masons of Hatherleigh but Mary Hole may be interesting as the Hole family of North Tawton were a well-known landowning family who were renowned as local clerics and several of the family had literary connections. I have to stress here that the genealogical research I note here is only tentative and others out there may well find I have gone down - or up - the wrong tree/s! But I wanted to include all these suggestions as if they do prove correct then Ann Mason Freeman's family background may be rather different from that which tends to be assumed. 

       It is also important to stress that Ann had several female friends who, like her, became preachers and memoirists. Each of these women deserves to be attended to and slotted into the context of this significant group of south west's non-conformists. Regrettably, at the moment, I am not able to spare more time to research them all, but I hope one day others will do so and that eventually there will be a chronology and compendium providing a source text about these fascinating women and their influence on the religious non-conformist groups that were so important in Devon rural communities during the late C18 and early C19.  

      Whatever the definitive facts about her ancestors, and about her social background, Ann Freeman does seem to stand out amongst the crowd of other evangelical women preachers of her time. Given that she suffered from poor health throughout her short life, it's striking that she was mentally able to withstand the hostility which was often directed towards her as she walked and preached her way around the Westcountry. And Ann was evidently gifted with a swift and sure intelligence; she could argue theological debate fluently, and even take on Bible Christian's male leaders; so much so, that during the last years of her life she had the courage to challenge these leaders and leave the Bible Christians to become a Quaker.

        Through the centuries there have been a handful of self-appointed eccentrically motivated so-called religious women born and brought up in the heart of Devon who managed to create a stir not only within the county, but extending out way beyond its boundaries. It's beyond the scope of this blog-post, but I have often wondered whether a couple of Devon's eccentric females of the C18 and early C19 had any links with one another and further, that women preachers such as Ann Freeman might have been influenced by these other 'alternative', eccentric country women. Even within the conventions of the mores of their own times  Joanna Southcott (self-designated prophetess, born 1750), and Princess Caraboo/ Mary Wilcox (exotic fantasist/impostor, born 1792) were utterly unconventional. When I first read about them I couldn't help but wonder whether there were links between the two women. Southcott and Caraboo had similar rural backgrounds and Caraboo's work as farm-hand may have meant that she heard rumour, gossip and general chit-chat coming from other parts of her own county which led her to find out about the bizarre life of Southcott. In 1803, when Caraboo was about twelve, Southcott’s Prophetic Box, which contained all her completed writings, was being conveyed from Exeter to London. Southcott, who was now 53, was a figure of national notoriety especially because of her deluded conviction that she was 'Woman of the Revelation'. It's certainly possible that Mary Wilcox heard about the older kinswoman’s escapades and that Southcott's notorious life led the younger woman to begin to dream up her own (arguably) even more outrageous future.

        Perhaps the contemporary milieu matched with the unsettled centennial opening years of the opening century had some bearing on these women's eccentricities. By the early C18 Devon was split between the dualities of its rural territories and its growing more urban areas; you could get lost in the intricate geography of high hedges and long narrow lanes, which were still mostly rutted tracks, but the county's reputation as a locality that could provide urban delights was growing; parts of Devon was becoming fashionable for the famous to frequent. Add to the mix the volatile effects of the Napoleonic Wars, with their concomitant dramas and scandals, and perhaps the extraordinary palavers initiated by Mary Willcocks and Joanna Southcott are already partly explained. And maybe there is some connection between these two women and the passionate evangelical women preachers of Devon and Cornwall, including Ann Mason Freeman - who was yet another farmer's daughter (or, as Caraboo, linked with farming) who popped up from the depths of Devon's C18/19 rural community. Maybe something in the female psyche during this time of momentous religious and social changes was ignited and (comparable to the contemporary chains of association between today's flourishing female song-writer/singers) led to a chain of influence, as each woman discovered the stories of those who preceded her and responded with an 'evangelising' flourish of her own.

      Devon must have remained special for Ann Mason Freeman, for even after her marriage and extensive travels she returned to her home at Northcott during the last weeks of her life, and died there on 7th March 1826. She was buried at Sutcombe burial ground (which I believe may be the same as Sutcombe's Free Church Cemetery), on 13th March. As I write I'm looking forward to the time when following our release from recent lockdown, - (during which I'm researching and writing this piece) I can get out and about on the literary trail again, so I can take off to the rural corners of north and west Devon in pursuit of Ann Mason's homeland. I hope to find one or two sites linked with this young country woman, who 'cheerfully gave up' the dutiful roles convention expected of her as a Devon farmer's daughter, 'to be a pilgrim'. When I do will add more photos to the post.  

Postscripts to Post 

  1.        As so often happens when I start to research a woman from the past who had literary links with Devon, when I was researching Ann Freeman's genealogy, another woman-who-wrote leapt out of the archived names. Lois Deacon, who I have written about in a previous post in my earlier blog - who is most remembered for her research into hidden stories about Thomas Hardy's life - also researched and wrote a biography titled So I Went My Way, about her great grandfather, another Bible Christian, who like Ann's father, was also a William Mason. This William Mason was also apparently known as a wrestler. As far as I know Lois didn't ever establish the definitive family for her William, (here is the record in A2A) but he certainly had associations with the same area, as Ann Mason Freeman's parents at Bradworthy, and the co-incidences between his life and that of hers suggest strongly that there must have been a blood relationship between him and her family. He was likely to have been her younger brother, who was baptised at Northlew in 1799. There is evidently much more out there to discover about Ann Mason's extended family, all of which could help to fill out the background context from which this Devon woman preacher and memoirist leapt out from the thicket of Devon rural lanes and left a literary legacy which even now enrichens our own understanding of religious non-conformity in the late C18 and early C19 and also, for those of us whose own ancestors came from these parts, gives us a little cameo about the lives of our forebearers. Perhaps someone out there may be able to further unravel the complex family networks ...

2.  Another frequent happening when I'm researching one or other Devon-linked woman writer is that the archives, or a google search, turns up another fascinating literary Devon associated woman. Finding about Ann Mason Freeman's home sites and reading up about Bradworthy parish I ran into several references to Mrs Desmond Humphreys, a celebrated novelist who wrote under the pseudonym 'Rita'. Humphreys travelled down through Devon in the 1920s and apparently stayed in Bradworthy, which later appeared in her novel Asenath of the Ford; A Romance of Red Earth Country:

'the long lovely avenue that leads to Bradworthy' where 'the trees bent towards each other on either side entwining bough and branch with loving intimacy, as friends link arm in arm, or lovers clasp hands'. (See Bradworthy).  

     I am not familiar with 'Rita' nor her novels, but will look forward to becoming acquainted with her when I have a few spare hours...

Delving into Devon's Literary Archives in search of Forgotten Women Writers

Archive record of Dorothy Holman at Devon Heritage Centre

After rather a long gap posting, during which I’ve been busy catching up with other neglected writing duties, here I am again. This year my main plan is to concentrate on women who have not yet featured in this blog or in my manuscript. In this first post I intend to delve into some of the local archives in search of texts by women writers who were linked with Devon. Many of these writings and their authors have virtually disappeared from public awareness.

In 2016, Anna Boyd Rioux published an article entitled Erased from history: Too many women writers -- like Constance Fenimore Woolson -- are left to languish in moldy archives. What will it take to bring them back? Rioux continued:

'Feminist scholars have done the hard work of recovering women writers, but we're not there yet. Far from it' ... Two of the books on many of the best-of-2015 lists were written by women who died in virtual obscurity, Clarice Lispector in 1977 and Lucia Berlin in 2004. The republication of their stories was big news last year, bringing them to the mass audiences denied them in their lifetimes. Lit Hub even declared 2015 “The Year of Rediscovered Women Writers,” in its list of the top five literary stories of the year. How could these gifted writers have been erased from history, so many wondered? We shouldn’t be so surprised. There are many worthy writers languishing in moldy archives, and I would venture to say that the majority of them are women. Feminist scholars spent much of the 1980s and 1990s recovering forgotten women writers, generations of Shakespeare’s and Melville’s sisters, as some called them. But virtually all of the dozens of writers they reclaimed, with the exception of Zora Neale Hurston and Kate Chopin, never made it out of academia’s cloistered walls and into the public consciousness. As a result, many of them are disappearing again.'

This is so sad.  I want to do my bit to helping to rectify the situation. My as yet unpublished book about the history of Devon women writers is missing a large chunk of the county's literary heritage; it only occasionally references the variety of women writers from or with Devon connections whose texts are held in archives. Therefore it seems useful at this stage of the blog, perhaps indeed imperative, to peer into the spaces and let some of the manuscripts and their writers have some light and air. 

At this stage I am concentrating on the archives held within Devon, either at the Devon Heritage Centre, or the North Devon Record Office. To start with I shall just list names, along with a brief summary about each entry. At a later time I may also expand out and add information from sources such as University of Exeter archives and perhaps venture even further afield. The one criterion I have at present is that all the women will have had a close connection with Devon in one way or other. And I must add, for the most part I do not intend to include recent writers (say after 1970ish). Following that I hope to look at some of these lost writers in more depth in future posts. Unfortunately in some (many) case the research trail soon grows cold, but maybe others out there may be tempted to pick up the thread and help fill in missing pieces of this lost literary Devon jigsaw. I have decided not to provide research catalogue numbers, but am instead naming some of the details of the manuscripts themselves. Most of the information contained in this post it taken from the records themselves.

 Names; Links; Texts
Devon Heritage Centre

Christian Henrietta Caroline Acland 1776-1778  Manuscript copy of Journal
The Journal describes Acland's journey from England to America and her experiences there during the War of Independence when her husband was a Major of Grenadiers under General Burgoyne 
Christian Henrietta Caroline Acland of Killerton, nee Fox-Strangways, 1750-1815.

Joan Mary Bishop  Joan M Bishop Papers. 26 boxes Consists of a family 'catalogue' but includes a Diary and Journals and Remininscenses of Childhood in Exeter in 1930's. 
Joan Bishop may have come from Exeter or Crediton. At the time of compilation of this list the record is closed and waiting for listings.

Doris Mary Bradbeer (Documents held in the 'Bradbeer family Box'). 
The records include the following:
Correspondence and articles by Miss Doris Mary Bradbeer, 1978-1986 Submitted to various magazines for publication. 
Manuscripts by Doris Mary Bradbeer, undated: Two typed copies, with handwritten corrections, of "On my Way 1898 - " by D. M. Bradbeer of 20 Riverside Road, Topsham, Exeter. Both copies are incomplete. Stories of her life and travels.
Manuscript by D. M. Bradbeer, n.d. Handwritten copy of parts of a manuscript. Appears to be part of "'On My Way" - see 8732M/4/1/1. 
Manuscript by D. M. Bradbeer, n.d. Incomplete copy of a manuscript for a book to be called "Fragile Evidence" or "Frail Evidence". Includes hand written copies of a letter submitting part of the manuscript to an agency. 
Manuscript by D. M. Bradbeer, n.d. Manuscript of a novel. No title. 
Manuscripts by D. M. Bradbeer, n.d. Two copies of a manuscript - "An Island Adventure" Manuscripts by D. M. Bradbeer; short stories and articles Seven short articles - "The Life and Death of the Paddle Steamer" (including newspaper clippings); "Starlings"; "The Miracle of the Sugar Cane"; "Country Ways. Old Linen"; "A Brush with Authority"; "The Duke and Duchess of Devonshire" on paddle steamers; and "Re-establishing an Ancient Country Craft. Racing Dinghy Building". Six short stories - "The Old Man's House" with drawing; "The Avenue Children"; "Willie Worm" 2 copies; "Snakes and Ladders"; "The Diver's Tale" 2 copies; "The Crescent Children" 2 copies. Four photographs of paddle steamers and a sailing boat to go with article.
Manuscripts by D. M. Bradbeer; Includes three copies of "One November Day"; three copies of "Jaunty - The Dog That Never Gave Up"; stories about The Avenue; pages 1 - 151 of a book with no title and two drawings for children.
Manuscripts by D. M. Bradbeer for books, short stories and articles, 1959-1983. Correspondence relating to article on "Establishing an ancient West Country Craft" and a copy of the article; Letter to Devon Life, and a copy of article "The Duke and Duchess of Devonshire" on paddle steamers; Article on starlings; letter from the BBC and article on late day weddings; Article on the fastnet race; 1982 newspaper article on Exmouth Challenge a yacht to be entered in the Round Britain and Ireland Race; four parts of articles and stories with no titles.

The above records state that D. M. Bradbeer lived at 20 Riverside Road, Topsham, Exeter and that she wrote the books "Story of the Manor and Port of Topsham" (pub. 1969) and "Joyful Schooldays: A Digest of the History of the Exeter Grammar Schools" (pub. 1971).

Barbara Isabella Buller (nee Kirkpatrick) 
C1820 Diary
According to the record Barbara Buller was born Barbara Kirkpatrick in South Molton. However she probably moved on marriage, as her will (1849) records her address as 12 Stanhope Place, Hyde Park, in London.

Lilian Mey Cronne -
Weather and gardening diaries 1966 -1999.
Lilian Cronne spent her retirement years in Cheldon Devon.

Gwendolyn Gwen Connor 
 (volumes or poetry (2) 1944, with biographical note and some later family papers).
The above records note that Gwen Connor (1885-1950, married H.Tapley Soper, Exeter City Librarian, and lived at 44 Wonford Road, Exeter, 1942 to her death), 'Dawn and Sunset at Topsham, Devon' 'Songs of Youth and the 'Desire after Knowledge', 1944 (with attached biographical note, 2009, by Karola Sartor, wife of G.E. Connor's nephew, and current - 2009 - owner of 44 Wonford Road), and "Springtime in Devon" (However, note that these records are restricted and 'not available for public inspection nor use until 24th April 2039'.

Beatrice Feodora Clara Augustus Grace Cresswell
Commonplace book of Beatrix F. Cresswell 1876 
Diaries of Beatrix and Richard Cresswell with notes and newspaper cuttings, photograph, dance card and obituary 1848-1940.
Notes on Books Read 1928-1933, 1933 -1938.
Diaries of Beatrix F Cresswell 1898-1899, 1901-1940.
Antiquarian and Literary Papers 1877-1924 (Westcountry Studies Library).
Diaries, commonplace book, notes on books read etc., 1876-1940
Beatrice Cresswell who died in 1940 is one of the few women writers you'll find in this list whose name is still widely recognised within Devon. In the early C20 she was a prolific writer of historical and travel books, features and various texts all, or most of which were concerned with Devon. I've already made a few notes about Cresswell in a post in my older blog (A Handful of 2012 Anniversaries)  Maybe this will be the year that I begin a Cresswell Quest.

Amy Frances Emma Durnford 
 C19  journals (9) of Amy Frances Emma Durnford,
There is no information about Amy Durnford but the documents are a sub-set of the Durnsford Family of Teignmouth Files, so at present I'm assuming that Durnford had a connection with Teignmouth.

Emily Sabine Baring-Gould - Compiler of Nursery Rhymes -
Illustrated book of nursery-rhymes with tunes. 1835. 
Emily Baring-Gould was the daughter of Revd. Sabine Baring-Gould of Lewtrenchyard.

Diana Amelia Baring Gould -
Notebook diary, journal of trip to America 1799 - 1857.
Diana Baring-Gould was the wife of Revd. Sabine Baring-Gould of Lewtrenchyard.

Dorothy Holman -
1904 83 diaires, incl. as a VAD nurse in Paris and Alexandria in WW1 and incl. refs to setting up of Topsham Museum.
Dorothy Holman's family lived at Teignmouth in Devon then various addresses in London between 1904 and 1939, when she moved to 25 The Strand, Topsham.

Mary Jenneret - 
Journal of Visit to Devon 1833.
Mary Jenneret may be the same woman as the widow Mrs Mary Jenneret of Bletchley

Elizabeth Knight -
Commonplace Book incl. genealogical information, remedies and accounts of a steward of Lady Clifford.  1667-1801? This collection is held privately (Enquiries to Devon Heritage Centre).
1667-1739 notebook with additions from family members.
Elizabeth Knight may have been steward at Ugbrooke near Chudleigh.

Catherine Lloyd -
Diaries fl1853 - 1856
Catherine Lloyd was wife of Revd. Lloyd of Tiverton. She may be the following:
Rev. John Daniel Lloyd (born about 1807), Uley, Gloucestershire, (in 1851 Census recorded as Rector of Clare Portion, Tiverton), and Catherine Hellings (born about 1811 in Tiverton, Devon), married in Tiverton in 1839 (1839 April-June : Tiverton &c. : Vol 10 : page 456 : entry unverified). 

Victoria Alexandria Marker 
Family diaries 1859-74 and diaries of tours in Scotland 1849, Germany 1854 and Switzerland 1862.
Victoria Marker, of Combe, which is Combe House in Gittisham. She was daughter of Edward Digby 9th Baron Digby of Minterne, Dorchester, Dorset and married Richard Marker of Combe in 1865.

Elizabeth Popham 
Manuscript music books belonging to her and others with music by her and others (C19)
Manuscript music book inscribed by Elizabeth Leyborne Popham music by her and some others 1858. 
Elizabeth Popham seems to have been a member of the Buller family from Downes, near Crediton as the documents are held in the family folders. Strictly speaking the 'music manuscripts' held in the Devon Heritage Centre are not in the category of 'lost women's writing', but I decided to include them here as they are part of Devon's forgotten artistic work by its female creators. She may be from the Buller - Leybourne - Popham family of Huntstrete. (records in Somerset Record Centre).

Elizabeth Simcoe 
Letter from Mrs Elizabeth Simcoe to Caroline Simcoe, c1839.
I'm just listing one item in this extensive archival catalogue for Elizabeth Simcoe, which is mainly kept in the Simcoe Family Archive. Some of these manuscripts have been published in various sources. I have written one post featuring Simcoe (See Down the Devon Lanes to Dunkeswell).

Emily Mary Sparkes 
Notebook used as a Diary by Emily Mary Sparkes (Nee Lyster) 1899-1891. Covers voyage by ship out to India, arrival there on 22nd November, and first weeks in that country.
Ends with a memo added in 1923 to the effect that the1891 diary was eaten by white ants.
Three separate sheets enclosed recording events of 3rd - 10th February 1891.
The Devon archive hold a number of files of  Emily Sparke's documents. The diaries cover the writer's residence in India 1890-1910, and the First and Second World War period, a memoranda book, and numerous loose enclosures. Diary entries are very detailed, especially about weather and family
Emily Mary Sparkes was born c1859 and died in 1954. Following her marriage she lived at Oakcliff, Dawlish Warren, then at Warren House Dawlish Warren

Anna Georgina Trollope (1873-1956)
Diaries Letters and Accounts 1904-51
Anna Trollope was wife of the 13th Baronet Trollope, who was Sir Arthur Grant Trollope (1866-1937). Anna was daughter of Franklin Prestage. I'm not sure what the family connection with Devon was (or indeed, if there was one) but Franklin Prestage lived in India.

Edith Wheeler
C20 Literary and Historical notes, scripts, press cuttings and other papers.
Edith Wheeler was a Devon Local Historian and Broadcaster.

Elizabeth Ellen Wood
This is quite an extensive catalogue so I have just provided a selection of items:

Diaires of Elizabeth Ellen Wood (nee Williams) of Brixham, Torquay and Plymouth, 1895-1972 (10 Volumes)
Diary Elizabeth Ellen Wood (nee Williams) 1941. This is written in a printed diary with a small section for each day. Covers a variety of war issues including keeping a shop and family concerns.
Reminiscences of Elizabeth Ellen Wood (nee Williams) 1914-18. Reminiscences about sharing a room with two friends from 1915 during the First World War. The diary has been transcribed and is associated with Devon Remembers First World War Collection.
Reminscences of Elizabeth Ellen Wood (nee Williams) 1895-1918. Describes her life from birth in 1895 - Daily life, school, political elections. The diary has been transcribed and is associated with Devon Remembers First World War Collection.
Diary of Elizabeth Ellen Wood (nee Williams) 1944-45. Printed diary with small sections to complete for each day. Some days are missing. Working at YMCA and includes comments about the war and at the end about the celebrations at the end of the war in Plymouth 'dancing, singing and looking on a roaring bonfire and fireworks from ships'.
Elizabeth Ellen Wood (Williams) may have been born in Brixham but evidently also lived in Torquay and Plymouth. Her diaries are evidently extensive and may prove useful for sources apropos both First and Second World Wars.

Laura Woodhouse 
Edited Diaries of Laura Woodhouse by RvO Hancock.
A visit to Lympstone 1840-1, extracted and edited by R O Hancock from the diaries of Laura Woodhouse, younger daughter of Sir John Trevelyan of Nettlecombe Somerset and wife of the Revered John Woodhouse, Rector of Huish Champflower, Somerset.
Journal related to a visit to Lympstone 1840-1.
According to the records noted above, Laura Woodhouse (nee Trevelyan), 1840-41 was from Nettlecombe and Huish Champflower in Somerset. I have included the record as, because they feature a Devon parish, as probable travel diaries  they are relevant to this study.

         …  Well that's a start. I'll be looking into other local archives and libraries in future posts and also endeavouring to take a close look at some of the writers listed here and their manuscripts. Watch this blog-space!

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Cottage at Cheldon

The cottage holiday-home of author Elizabeth Stucley in the 1960s. See Her-Story at Hartland.

Cheriton Fitzpaine Church

At Cheriton Fitzpaine church where Jean Rhys is buried. Gravestone on left of porch. See Caribbean Seas at Cheriton Fitzpaine.